The Liberia Football Association (LFA) has announced that over 150 yellow cards and about 55 red cards were issued during the first phase of the 2015/2016 national league in the 1st and 2nd division.The LFA said FIFA badge assistant referee John Rogers issued the highest cards in a total of 50 yellow cards and 10 red cards.Accordingly, yellow card attracts a fine of L$1,000, while red card attracts between L$2,000 to L$10,000 – depending on the degree of the foul.The chairman of the Competition Committee, Ansu Dorley told journalists yesterday in an update during the end of the first phase of the league.Ansu said among the 10 top clubs, BYC FC and ELWA United were the only teams that didn’t receive red cards, but were the highest receivers of yellow card disciplines.He clarified that most of the clubs paid their fees by mandating the LFA to deduct the funds from games’ intakes.He also announced that BYC topped the 1st division log with 24 points; 29 goals and seven goals against; followed by current football champions, Nimba United, with 21 points, 13 goals but 18 goals against. FC Fassell sits 3rd place with points; and LPRC and LISCR sit 4th and 5th places respectively with 13 and 12 points.For the 2nd division, Monrovia Club Breweries topped the table with 28 points.The Go Blue Boys were certificated as the “Best Team” in the 1st division league in the first phase, while BYC coach Cooper Sarnoh was certified as “Best Coach.”Coach Sarnoh is among the three coaches with License B certificate as a coach in the 1st division league.BYC striker Mark Paye was awarded a “ball’ for being the highest goal scorer in the top flight league. Mark netted 10 goals, including two hat-tricks.Meanwhile, the second phase begins Wednesday, April 27.There was no update on the female league.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
The BC Liberals unveiled their 2009 platform today, entitled ‘Keep B.C. Strong’.Parties officially began campaigning on Tuesday afternoon. Premier Gordon Campbell promised to work with Ottawa to extend employment insurance benefits, to cut small business taxes, and to double the provincial training tax credit to $4,000 for employers.Here is a look at some of the B.C. Liberals key platform statments:- Advertisement -– Pursue the possibility of developing Site C as a public asset, owned by BC Hydro.– Continue expanding and building new hospitals and health facilities in Fort St. John and other cities throughout the province.– Launch a review of the BC Assessment process to lower the burden of property taxes on small businesses.Advertisement – Launch a new BC Family Residence Program this summer to provide families who must accompany a loved-one for medical care- particularly rural and Northern families – with new travel and accommodation support.– Propose a new, national Extended Employment Insurance Program in cooperation with the federal government, to extend benefits for workers who exhaust their Employment Insurance benefits.– Expand the ‘wood-first’ policy, requiring wood as the primary building material in publicly-owned and provincially-funded buildings; create a new Wood Innovation & Design Centre in Prince George.
FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. — Fire Information Officer Amanda Reynolds has confirmed some more structures that were lost in the fires, including two in the South Taylor Hill fires.Reynolds says one was an unoccupied home that seemed to be abandoned, and the other was a primary residence. And, in Kelly Lake, an abandoned/unoccupied cabin was lost.In Charlie Lake, Acting Fire Chief Dale Widsten confirmed that some structures that were barns and outbuildings were lost, but no homes.- Advertisement -No confirmation has come in about Baldonnel structure losses.
Aston Villa have signed French defender Aly Cissokho from Valencia, subject to international clearance, the Premier League outfit have announced.The 26-year-old arrives at Villa Park in a reported £2.4million deal, siging a five-year contract with Paul Lambert’s side.Cissokho, who has one cap for France, spent last season on loan at Liverpool but failed to make a real impression at Anfield, making just 15 appearances for the top flight runners-up before returning to Spain.Villa announced the move on their official Twitter account, saying: “Aly Cissokho has joined us on a four-year deal from Valencia, subject to international clearance.”Cissokho joins the likes of Kieran Richardson, Joe Cole and Philippe Senderos as new arrivals at Villa Park this summer. New Aston Villa defender Aly Cissokho 1
The Donegal sports agent behind the fastest man on the planet said he and Usain Bolt are “like brothers” and how he spends more time with the Olympic champion than his own girlfriend.Donegal man Ricky Simms is the Jerry Maguire-style figure behind the charismatic Jamaican who wowed the world with his 9.63 second 100m sprint into the history books on Sunday night.The 37-year-old from Milford has been managing the greatest sprinter the world has ever known since he was a 16-year-old fledgling track star. Ricky, who used to run with Finn Valley AC, said, “I always think we’re like brothers. I spend more time with him than I do with my partner. We know each other very well. His coach is the strict one and I’m the one that supports him and tries to make it as easy for him as possible.”In a recent BBC documentary, the most charismatic sportsman since Mohammed Ali revealed how he valued his close friendship with the Donegal man who brokers all his contracts.“Ricky is a great part of my life. From when I started professional he’s been my agent. We’ve had good times and he’s treated me the same way since the first time we met,” he said. BOLT IS LIKE MY BROTHER – DONEGAL AGENT SIMMS was last modified: August 7th, 2012 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:ricky simmsUsain Bolt
LETTERKENNY GOLF CLUB:REPORTS/NEWS:With the weather reportedly about to change to normal winter conditions, local golfers are taking full advantage of the dry spell and none more than club member David Johnston  who, having honed his long game recently at the range, recorded a win on Wednesday 2nd with a 41pt return. Despite a double bogey at Sliabh Sneacht [4th], David’s front nine of 19pts was added to with birdies at 14th [Stackyard] and 18th [Stockade] for a one under back nine score of 22pts to outpoint runner-up Enda O’ Donnell  who finished on 38pts. Saturday5th Open was won by one of the club’s better known members, Tommy Daly . Following a double bogey at 4th, Tommy used his old ring craft to accumulate 20pts on front nine and another double bogey at 15th [Candalabra] left him with a 37pt total which required a countback to relegate Alistair Boreland  to runner-up. Despite a ‘blank’ at Hall Door [1st], Alistair scored 21pts on front nine but not enough on back nine to land thesucker punch. In third place was Liam Kenny  with 36pts.Sunday 6th confined saw a welcome back to the winners’ enclosure for Fergal Callan  who, despite rare double bogeys on front nine at both par five’s 2nd [Glebe] and 7th [The Isle], a fighting 20pts on back nine gave him an overall 38pts to outpoint the recent ‘steady Eddie’ of the Donegal Seniors winning team Ed Margey  who finished on 35pts.Tommy Daly in excellent form as he wins Saturday Open at Barnhill was last modified: November 8th, 2016 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:BarnhillgolfSport
magic of the cup 2 GETTY Carabao Cup commentaries LIVE on talkSPORT game on Where can you listen?Manchester United vs Derby County in the third round of the Carabao Cup is LIVE on talkSPORT. Click here to listen to full Man United vs Derby commentary. Klopp accused of ‘hanging Liverpool’s kids out to dry’ for his ‘vanity mission’ promoted gutted Emotional Ferguson reveals Everton players were left in tears after Leicester defeat The message Klopp sent to Liverpool kids at half-time of Villa thrashing He has now taken his first steps into the world of management, and things have started brightly for Lampard at Derby, with 16 points claimed in the opening weeks of the Championship season keeping the Rams in the upper echelons of the league table.However, Tuesday’s clash against the Red Devils will be Lampard’s biggest test to date, even though United have been struggling for consistency this season.Mourinho’s side dropped further points on Saturday as they were held at home by Wolves, meaning they have won just 10 points from a possible 18. RESULTS cup clash Everton vs Leicester LIVE: talkSPORT commentary for cup quarter-final clash Man United v Colchester: talkSPORT commentary as League Two side eye upset Latest Carabao Cup news Man City beat Oxford, Man United ease past Colchester and Leicester edge Everton Oxford vs Man City live: talkSPORT commentary for cup quarter-final clash Team newsJose Mourinho has rotated his squad for the clash against the Championship side.Paul Pogba is the main absentee following reports that the Portuguese has informed the United players Pogba will never captain the team again.Manchester United: Romero, Dalot, Bailly, Jones, Young, Matic, Herrera, Mata, Lingard, Martial, LukakuSubs: Grant, Darmian, Smalling, Fellaini, Fred, McTominay, SanchezDerby County: Carson, Forsyth, Bryson, Tomori, Keogh, Wilson, Mount, Johnson, Bennett, Nugent, BogleSubs: Roos, Wisdom, Waghorn, Josefzoon, Marriott, Huddlestone, Malone disrespect be brave talkSPORT has full commentary of Manchester United vs Derby County on Tuesday night as two former co-workers reunite at Old Trafford.Derby manager Frank Lampard played under United boss Jose Mourinho during the latter’s two spells as Chelsea manager, and arguably developed into the world class midfielder he was under the Portuguese coach’s tutelage. Lampard and Mourinho enjoyed great success with Chelsea Manchester United vs Derby (Tuesday, September 25) – LISTEN LIVEOxford United vs Manchester City (Tuesday, September 25) – LISTEN LIVELiverpool vs Chelsea (Wednesday, September 26) – LISTEN LIVETottenham vs Watford (Wednesday, September 26) – LISTEN LIVE Lampard has begun his spell as Derby manager brightly Performances have varied between excellent and miserable quite drastically, and you never know what United side are going to turn up when a match gets under way.Lampard will know United have all the quality to make light work of Derby, but he is sure to sense a potential upset could be on the cards.What the managers are sayingJose Mourinho (Man United): “I think the team as a team is resolving the defensive problems better than before. I think the team is more compact, is more solid. The spirit, the cooperation, the empathy, the communication – all of that improves in the team and good results bring confidence and I think we are improving as a team.”Frank Lampard (Derby): “I’m under no illusions. They are a very tough team to come up against. We are a big underdog – but that should be good for us. It’s a good challenge. I had a pretty good record there [Old Trafford] with Chelsea. But I was fortunate to play in a team with the likes of Didier Drogba, which helps you win games at Old Trafford! You feel the magic and history of the place when you go there. I want to make the most of an opportunity with eyes on us, against one of the top Premier League teams.” Liverpool starlets joining Club World Cup squad… after being thrashed by Villa on target Derby delight as Carabao Cup semi-final draw sets up intriguing 2020 clashes Top scorer in 2019: Messi, Mbappe and Sterling trailing Europe’s top marksman 2 draw done
SANTA CLARA — C.J. Beathard was in his puristic form Wednesday at the 49ers media podium, the spot where Jimmy Garoppolo typically would hold his weekly address. The contrast in charisma was striking, just as it could be on the field.Beathard strolled up in white socks without shoes, a baggy undershirt and backward cap. He spoke softly and even-pitched in his Tennessee drawl. He had no cover-boy smile, unless we’re talking Field & Stream Magazine.He definitely is no Garoppolo. And that’s OK …
A 350,000-year-old skull that looks shockingly like a modern human by Dr Jerry BergmanTextbooks and science books written for laypersons often imply a certainty about human evolution that does not exist. If one reads widely, one soon finds that the precision implied in accounts of evolution vanishes, especially when it comes to human evolution. Some references admit this fact, but claim that evolution is true because it has been a fruitful theory that has inspired much research and exploration.One cannot deny that Darwinian evolution has been a fruitful theory, but this fact alone does not make it a true theory. Oxford professor Thomas Dixon succinctly dismisses this commonly-made claim by evolutionists. After stating that “Ptolemaic astronomy … was hugely successful for many centuries,” he added that “there is no reason to suppose that today’s successful theories [like Darwinism] are true. Both true and untrue theories can produce accurate predictions.”In a breath of fresh air, one scientific report writes, “When and where did our species emerge? Anthropologists have struggled with that question for decades, and scattered clues had suggested the answer lay somewhere in sub-Saharan Africa about 200,000 years ago.”The latest new evidence of human evolution, a review in Nature noted (as is common in reports of new fossil discoveries), demands rewriting of the textbooks. The recently discovered fossil remains “suggest the first Homo sapiens showed up more than” 100,000 to 150,000 years “earlier than we thought in a place many experts didn’t suspect.” The report on the find was a cover story published in none other than the most prestigious scientific journal in the world, Nature. The first issue of Nature magazine was published in November of 1869 and the journal has been an aggressive supporter for Darwinism ever since. It was ranked the world’s most cited scientific journal by the Citation Reports, a website that keeps track of citation numbers.The fact that our lineage as modern humans has been pushed back a hundred to a hundred and fifty thousand years with one discovery says several things. First, it shows how little evidence exists about human evolution, and, two, how tenuous the dates are. As the Nature report admitted, the “place and time of emergence of H. sapiens remain obscure because the fossil record is scarce and the chronological age of many key specimens remains uncertain.”The report the paleontologists published in Nature on the fossil skull of a Homo sapiens discovered in Morocco note it is a more elongated skull shape than modern humans. It appears, assuming that the ones uncovered are typical of this human variation, that they are simply another people group. The report admits that the brain case falls somewhere between what one might expect between ancient and modern humans.A review of the new fossil findings, as published in The Independent, opined, “The fossils could represent the earliest known examples of H. sapiens ever found (if confirmed by further research), and they serve as evidence that members of our species lived beyond sub-Saharan Africa.”A History of the FindThe details of the discovery of the Morocco find make one very suspect of its validity. The first discovery in the area occurred in 1961. While plowing into a dense limestone wall, a crew of miners struck a soft patch that gave way to a mound of cinnamon-colored dirt. In the dirt was a nearly-complete skull. The miners, thinking the skull was from a modern human, turned it over to their field doctor. Soon after, the researchers uncovered more remains, including several jaw bone fragments and an arm fragment. The scientists then pegged the fossils at around 40,000 years old, a few thousand years before the Neanderthals were believed to have vanished.Roughly 40 years later, anthropologist Jean-Jacques Hublin and his team excavated the half-dozen layers of soil beneath the area where the skull and arm bones were discovered in 1961. The team found the remains of what looked like five individuals and flint blades which appeared to have been burned by nearby cooking fires. The evidence found at this cite indicated that these bone fragments were from modern humans.To date the bone fragments, the researchers used a dating technique that measures how much radiation had built up in the flint since it was heated, a technique called thermoluminescence. Thermoluminescence dating measures luminescence exhibited by crystalline materials previously absorbed ionizing radiation energy that alters their crystal structure which retains the distortion. Heating the material causes the crystal structure to relax, assuming the previous conformation (shape) and causing the stored energy to be re-emitted as light which can be measured.Using this technique, Hublin and his team concluded that the ancient bones belonged to people who lived roughly 300,000 to 350,000 years ago. This assumes the ionization of the flint occurred at the same time when the people were cooking their meal. And it also assumes that the fire made by the people caused the ionization that the thermoluminescence technique measured. One major problem is contamination of ionizing radiation from such sources as radioactive elements in the soil or from cosmic rays.The Skulls Demolished the Previous Human Fossil Record When the team examined the skulls, instead of finding the robust features existing on faces of existing claimed human ancestors, including Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis, the face displayed a striking resemblance to modern humans. For example, the Homo erectus skulls have a single protruding brow ridge extending across the nose bridge. In contrast, the individuals they uncovered in Morocco had smaller separated brow ridges very much like modern humans. In addition, rather than a large face and flattened skull as common on Homo heidelbergensis, these people had small faces and rounder skulls also like modern humans. As the lead researcher stated “The face of these people … had a skull that is more elongated than most of us, but I’m not sure these people would stand out from a crowd today.”Implications of the FindThe major problem was, assuming their findings are valid, the discovery indicates modem humans lived close to the same time as our evolutionary ancestors. You cannot have descended from an earlier ancestor who lived close to the same time that you lived. Your early ancestors must have lived long before the time that you lived. This is why it was correctly stated that this find will force rewriting the textbooks! What was assumed to be our early human ancestor could not have been our ancestor. This is the same problem that the eminent paleontologist Louis Leakey discovered several decades ago that forced a redrawing the human family tree. It may have to be drawn yet again!Hublin added that he is convinced the Moroccan specimens “represent the very root of our species.” This means that all of the Homo sapiens ever found — including those uncovered far beyond Africa — trace their ancestral linkages back to the land that is today’s Morocco” and not sub-Saharan Africa as the current dominant theory teaches. This requires another major textbook revision, because the details of the evolution of humans, including loss of body fur/hair, bipedal locomotion, evolution of the brain, language, and all the rest is based on the sub-Saharan African evolution model. Thus, Darwinists will have to greatly revise many human evolution details.Associate professor of archaeology at the University of Southampton, Sonia Zakrzewski, concluded Hublin’s discovery was so important that it will encourage other archaeologists to drastically alter the way they think about human origins. She wrote, “It really sets the world alight in terms of the possibilities for understanding the evolution of Homo sapiens…. It certainly means that we need to rethink our models” of human evolution. Indeed, evolutionists will have to do some major rethinking.Update July 11, 2018: It appears the out of Asia idea is catching on, meaning the origin of humans occurred in Asia and not Africa as once widely believed. The cover of New Scientist included the following words in bold letters “Out of Asia. It’s time to rethink the map of human evolution.” (July 7-13, 2018). The article covers many of the early human fossil finds, including the Peking Man fossils discovered in 1923 which disappeared during the war. All that remains are casts which show them to be broad nosed men. Then came the 1992 find in China that looked like a hybrid mix of H. erectus and H. sapiens, which is not a problem if one concluded that H. erectus were H. sapiens, i. e., were the same species as many creationists concluded. Next came the 2009 find, also in China, classified as H. sapiens partly based on its very human like chin. This find was dated at least 50,000 years before humans were supposed to have arrive on earth.The New Scientist article then added the 2017 Moroccan fossils reported above going back 300,000 to 350,000 Darwin years, adding 100,000 Darwin years to the previous estimated date of the first humans. The problem is “our ancestors, in all their forms, were a promiscuous bunch. It seems as if every new genetic study reveals yet more interbreeding between groups that were once thought to be distinct species.” (Kate Douglas. 2018. p. 30). This is what many creationists have been saying for some time. All, or most of, these fossil fragments are simply different varieties of humans exactly as we see today, except they exhibited more variety than modern humans. It looks like even more rewriting of the textbooks is called for. At the least, these new finds may reduce the dogmatism rampant in science. Thomas Dixon. 2008. Science and Religion. Oxford University Press. p. 34. Brodwin, Erin. 2017. 300, 000-year-old skulls that look shockingly like ours could rewrite the Human Evolution Origin Story. The Independent, 10 November, 2017. Hublin Ewen Callaway Oldest Homo sapiens fossil claim rewrites our species’ history. Nature 546; p. 212 June 7, 2017 Brodwin, 2017. Hublin, Jean-Jacques et al. 2017. Nature 546, 289. Hublin, J. et al. 2017. Nature 546, 289–292. Brodwin, 2017. Richter, D. et al., 2017. The Age of the Hominin Fossil from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the Origins of the Middle Stone Age, Nature. 246: 293-296. Brodwin, 2017. Brodwin, 2017. Quoted in Brodwin, 2017. Author Jerry Bergman, PhDDr Jerry Bergman, professor, author and speaker, is a frequent contributor to Creation-Evolution Headlines. He is currently a staff scientist at the Institute for Creation Research (ICR). See his Author Profile for his previous articles and more information.(Visited 946 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
MediaClubSouthAfrica.com reporter The dolos, a South African invention in which interlocking blocks of concrete are used to protect seawalls and preserve beaches from erosion, at the Coega deep-water port.(Image copyright Coega)Where would you expect to find the inventor of the CAT scan, the makers of the “speed gun” used in cricket ovals the world over, or the world’s first oil-from-coal refinery?There’s a wide range of innovative and entrepreneurial activity in South Africa, backed up by a number of organisations that provide support for budding inventors and innovators.Q20CAT scanOil from coalHeart transplantSpeed gunKreepy KraulyAPS therapyPratley PuttyDolosseQ20, a multi-purpose lubricant The product was developed back in 1950 in Pinetown, KwaZulu-Natal, by a Mr Robertson, who reportedly had come up with an effective water repellent that kept rust at bay, eased squeaky door hinges, and made it easy to release rusted or seized nuts and bolts.Apparently Robertson did not know what to call it but he told his neighbour that it certainly had 20 answers to 20 questions, and the name Q20 stuck.Today the product, and others in the range, is used widely in South African offices, workshops and homes, and has set the standard for all subsequent similar products from around the world. It is also sold in the US and UK/Europe.According to Q20 manufacturing company Triton-Leo, the secret to the wonder substance’s efficiency is that unlike oil, it is heavier than water. Once Q20 is sprayed on water, it sinks to the bottom, where it acts as a water displacer and lubricant on the problem area.Triton-LeoCAT scanThe computed axial tomography scan, or CAT scan, was developed at Tufts University in the UK by South African physicist Allan Cormack and Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories. Their achievement secured them the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.Cormack’s interest in the problem of X-ray imaging of soft tissues or layers of tissue of differing densities was first aroused when he took up the part-time position of physicist for a hospital radiology department.The two-dimensional representations of conventional X-ray plates were often unable to distinguish between such tissues. More information could be gained if X-rays of the body were taken from several different directions, but conventional X-ray techniques made this procedure problematic.In the early 1960s Cormack showed how details of a flat section of soft tissues could be calculated from measurements of the attenuation of X-rays passing through it from many different angles.He thus provided the mathematical technique for the CAT scan, in which an X-ray source and electronic detectors are rotated about the body and the resulting data is analysed by a computer to produce a sharp map of the tissues within a cross-section of the body.Nobel e-Museum: Allan CormackOil from coalSasol is the world’s first – and largest – oil-from-coal refinery. It is situated in Sasolburg in South Africa and provides 40% of the country’s fuel.The history of Sasol began in 1927 when a White Paper was tabled in Parliament to investigate the establishment of a South African oil-from-coal industry.It was realised then that, because South Africa did not have crude oil reserves, the country’s balance of payments had to be protected against increasing crude oil imports. After many years of research and international negotiations, the South African Coal Oil and Gas Corporation was formed in 1950.Major milestones include the first automotive fuel (1955), the construction of the National Petroleum Refiners of South Africa (1967), the establishment in 1990 of its first international marketing company, Sasol Chemicals Europe, and a joint venture agreement signed with Uzbekneftegaz in 2009 to establish a gas-to-liquids venture in Uzbekistan.Sasol has developed world-leading technology for the conversion of low-grade coal into value-added synfuels and chemicals.SasolHeart transplantThe world’s first heart transplant was performed by Dr Christiaan Barnard in Cape Town on 3 December 1967.Barnard was born in the town of Beaufort West in 1922. The seeds of his future career were sown when one of his patients delivered a baby boy with a heart defect which could not be remedied. The baby died, causing him to think deeply about the need for remedial surgery and the replacement of heart valves.A turning point came when Barnard was offered a chance to work in Minneapolis in the US under Professor Wagensteen, a great teacher of experimental surgery. The heart-lung machine was perfected, and this turned out to be the gateway to cardiac surgery.The idea of transplanting occurred to Barnard. If it was possible with kidneys, why not the heart? After more years of study in the US, he returned to South Africa with a parting gift from Prof Wagensteen – a heart-lung machine.Groote Schuur hospital was waiting his return in 1958 to start the first heart unit to perform a cardiac bypass operation.After performing the first successful kidney transplant on Edith Black, in October 1967 Barnard informed Professor Val Schrire, who had built up the cardiac clinic: “Everything is ready for a heart transplant. We have the team and we know how to do it.”In November 1967, Schrire called Barnard and told him that there was a suitable patient for a heart transplant. Louis Washkansky was suffering from heart failure and was prepared to take the chance. The rest is history.Barnard passed away in Cyprus, Greece on 2 September 2001 from an acute asthma attack.Speed gunThe South African-made speed gun, developed by Somerset West inventor Henri Johnson, was formally launched at The Oval in England during the 1999 Cricket World Cup.In 1992 Johnson, an engineer witha background in sonar and radar, invented the Speedball which was manufactured by South African firm Electronic Development House. The device accurately measures the speed and angles of speeding objects such as cricket and tennis balls.Generally referred to as a “speed gun”, Johnson’s gizmo is sold in cricketing countries and in the US and Europe. It has also been adapted for other ball sports such as tennis and golf. Johnson has since moved his company to Orlando, Florida, to better keep up with world trends.Kreepy KraulyThe swimming pool vacuum cleaner was invented by Ferdinand Chauvier, a hydraulics engineer who came to South Africa from the Belgian Congo in 1951.Chauvier quickly realised that there was a huge market for taking the hassle out of cleaning swimming pools, and went about inventing a machine that would do the job automatically, efficiently powered by the ordinary operation of the pool’s filter.But it wasn’t until 1974 that the first Kreepy Krauly was born in Chauvier’s Springs home.He died in 1985, but Kreepy Kraulys continue to keep thousands of pools clean in South Africa and the world over.APS therapyGervan Lubbe was flicking through an American medical journal one day when he stumbled across an article about pain relief. After reading all he could on the topic, he wondered whether it would be possible to electronically stimulate the body’s natural nerve impulses to relieve pain.Lubbe, had always had a keen interest in medicine, but never thought he was clever enough to be a doctor. So in his spare time he studied human anatomy and physiology until he thought he knew enough about the causes of arthritic pain. Then he set out inventing a device that would alleviate the problem.After building the first prototypes and obtaining approval from the health department and the Food and Drug Administration in the United States, Lubbe formed the company Tech Pulse in 1993 to produce, market and distribute the Action Potential Stimulation device.Today, Lubbe’s devices are sold in 41 countries, including the US, Europe and the Middle East. In South Africa alone, over 40 000 people use the little machines to relieve pain.APS TherapyPratley PuttyPratley’s famous glue is the only South African invention that has been to the moon. In 1969 the putty was used to hold bits of the Apollo XI mission’s Eagle landing craft together.Krugersdorp engineer George Montague Pratley invented his famous sticky stuff in the 1960s while looking for a glue that would hold components in an electrical box.Pratley died in 1983 and today the company is run by his son, Kim. Hundreds of tons of Pratley putty have been exported all over the world, and the company has diversified into other products.PratleyDolosseDolosse are large, unusually shaped concrete blocks weighing up to 20 tons. The structures are designed to break up wave action and protect harbour walls and coastal installations.Designed by Eric Merrifield and first installed in East London harbour, they are now used all over the world.The Coega Project, comprising an industrial development complex and deepwater port 20 kilometres east of the city of Port Elizabeth, recently made history with the casting of the biggest dolosse on the African continent.A layer of 25 000 30-ton dolosse has been laid on the two breakwaters for the deep-water harbour of Ngqura.According to Deon Retief, the partner responsible for the Nqura breakwater design at Prestedge Retief Dresner Wijnberg, the dolosse comprise the top layer of the main breakwater which, at 2.5 kilometres long, is the “largest by far” in Africa.Q20 extract by Emily van Rijswijck. Other information taken from Great South African Inventions by Mike Bruton, published by Cambridge University Press in their Indigenous Knowledge Library series. ISBN 978 0 521 74663 2.Useful linksAcademy of Science of South AfricaCouncil for GeoscienceCouncil for Scientific and Industrial ResearchDepartment of Science and TechnologyInnovation FundInnovation HubNational Advisory Council on InnovationNational Research FoundationNational Science and Technology Forum AwardsNational Science and Technology ForumPublic Understanding of BiotechnologySABS Designs InstituteSouth African Aids Vaccine InitiativeSouth African Biodiversity Information FacilitySouth African Bureau of StandardsSouthern African Large TelescopeSquare Kilometre Array South AfricaTechnology Top 100