Tougher controls on aircraft smog emissions introduced by UN aviation agency

As part of its effort to reduce aircraft emissions that affect local air quality and the increase in global warming greenhouse gases, the United Nations aviation agency has adopted more stringent standards for controlling a pollutant that can contribute to the reddish-brown smog often seen over urban areas.By unanimous decision of its 36-member Council, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) adopted new oxides of nitrogen (Nox) standards which are 12 per cent more stringent than previous levels for applicability in 2008.Nox is the generic term for a group of highly reactive gases, all of which contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts. Many of the nitrogen oxides are colourless and odourless. However, one common pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), along with particles in the air can often be seen as smog. Most Nox emissions from aircraft have been found to occur in approach, take off and climb in a height range up to 3,000 feet.Since 1981, ICAO has issued progressively stricter Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) for aircraft engine emissions, as well as exploring ways to reduce emissions through operational and market-based measures.In close cooperation with international organizations concerned and the air transport industry, ICAO aims to limit or reduce the number of people affected by significant aircraft noise, the impact of aviation emissions on local air quality and the impact of aviation greenhouse gas emissions on the global climate.The entry into force last month of the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aimed at further reducing greenhouse gas emissions reaffirmed ICAO’s leadership role in environmental matters related to civil aviation.Specifically, the Protocol calls on industrialized countries to work through ICAO to pursue the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions from international civil aviation. read more

Admiral Nelson kept at sea by naval bosses to frustrate his scandalous

first_img“For no real good reason Nelson got it into his head that Troubridge was out to fix it that he remained at sea and away from Emma.”There is a letter that exists which Troubridge wrote to Nelson in August 1801, stating how hurt he was by what Nelson had said about him.”The letter is being sold by International Autograph Auctions in Marbella, Spain, on Saturday. The letter was written four years before Nelson was killed after leading the Royal Navy to a decisive victory at the Battle of Trafalgar.It has been in the possession of a private collector is now being sold for a pre-sale estimate of £15,000.Auctioneer Richard Davie said: “This is a letter of interesting content and good association.”Nelson had quite a ruthless streak in him, as reflected in this letter, and didn’t suffer fools.” Admiral Nelson writes in the letter that he feels sea sick Admiral Nelson's mistress Emma Hamilton “Who upheld him when he would have sunk under grief and mortification?…Nelson, that Nelson that he now Lords it over.”So much for gratitude. I forgive him, but, by God, I shall not forget it.”He enjoys showing his power over me. Never mind; all together it will shorten my days.”He signed off: “Ever my dear friend your affectionate half sea sick Nelson.” Admiral Nelson’s mistress Emma HamiltonCredit:BNPS The letter from Admiral Nelson to his mistress Lady Emma Hamilton in which he launches a bitter broadside at a superior officerCredit:IAA/BNPS Andrew Baines, a Nelson expert and head of historic ships at the National Museum of the Royal Navy, said Nelson’s relationship with Troubridge became fractious after Nelson’s affair with Lady Emma Hamilton.Mr Baines said: “Troubridge took a dim view of the relationship as did the vast majority of the establishment.”It wasn’t so much that he had a mistress, but the issue was this menage-a-trois Nelson was involved in with her and her husband and there was no real attempt to hide it. Admiral Nelson was kept at sea by angry naval bosses who wanted to frustrate his scandalous relationship with his mistress, a letter reveals.After being made Lord of the Admiralty in 1801, Sir Thomas Troubridge was said to have deliberately kept Nelson at sea for long periods so he could not be with his mistress, Lady Emma Hamilton, as their affair was a public scandal.Sir Thomas was once a friend of Nelson’s, but became his foe when he was promoted above the famously egotistical sailor. In a 216-year-old letter to Emma, Nelson wrote of his fury at Sir Thomas “lording it” over him and confessed to feeling seasick because he had been at sea for so long. The letter from Admiral Nelson to his mistress Lady Emma Hamilton in which he launches a bitter broadside at a superior officer Admiral Nelson writes in the letter that he feels sea sickCredit:IAA/BNPS Nelson found his treatment all the more galling as he had saved Sir Thomas from ridicule three years earlier at the Battle of the Nile where he ran his ship aground and was unable to take part.After leading the British to victory, Nelson insisted Sir Thomas still be given a gold medal commemorating the battle.But his feelings about his naval colleague had changed by October 1801.He wrote to Lady Hamilton: “Tomorrow week all is over no thanks to Sir Thos.”I believe the fault is all his, and he ought to have recollected that I got him the medal of the Nile. Want the best of The Telegraph direct to your email and WhatsApp? Sign up to our free twice-daily  Front Page newsletter and new  audio briefings.last_img read more